The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
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  2. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), "National Health Expenditures 2012 Highlights," (accessed June 11, 2014)

  3. Joshua Wright, "Health Care's Unrivaled Job Gains and Where It Matters Most,", Oct. 7, 2013

  4. Joy Wilke, "Majority in US Say Healthcare Not Gov't Responsibility,", Nov. 18, 2013

  5. Physicians for a National Health Program, "A Brief History: Universal Health Care Efforts in the US,", 1999

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  8. Harry S. Truman Library and Museum, "This Day in Truman History November 19, 1945: President Truman's Proposed Health Program," (accessed Dec. 12, 2013)

  9. Kaiser Health News, "Nixon's Plan for Health Reform, in His Own Words,", Sep. 3, 2009

  10. Richard Nixon, "Special Message to the Congress on Health Care,", Mar. 2, 1972

  11. Richard Nixon, "Special Message to the Congress Proposing a National Health Strategy,", Feb. 18, 1971

  12. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, "National Health Insurance - A Brief History of Reform Efforts in the US,", Mar. 2009

  13. Consumer Choice Health Security Act of 1994,, Nov. 20, 1993

  14. Bill Clinton, "Address on Health Care Reform,", Sep. 22, 1993

  15. Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS), "Time to Draw the Line,", Nov. 1993

  16. World Health Organization (WHO), "The World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage,", 2013

  17. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "OECD Health Data 2013: How Does the United States Compare,", 2013

  18. Consumer Reports, "Sluggish Economy Forces Americans to Cut Corners to Pay for Medications,", Sep. 2012

  19. National Patient Advocate Foundation, "Issue Brief: Medical Debt, Medical Bankruptcy and the Impact on Patients,", Sep. 2012

  20. Peter Ubel, "How Good Is the Good News about Healthcare Inflation?,", Oct. 2, 2013

  21. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "OECD.StatExtracts,", Dec. 2013

  22. White House Council of Economic Advisers, "Economic Report of the President: 2013,", Mar. 2013

  23. Craig Phillips, "The Waiting Room: US Health Insurance Facts & Figures,", Oct. 18, 2013

  24. Scott Atlas, MD, "What the World Doesn't Know about Health Care in America,", Nov. 16, 2012

  25. David H. Howard, Lisa C. Richardson, and Kenneth E. Thorpe, "Cancer Screening and Age in the United States and Europe," Health Affairs, 2009

  26. Arduino Verdecchia, PhD, et al., "Recent Cancer Survival in Europe: A 2000-02 Period Analysis of EUROCARE-4 Data," The Lancet Oncology, Sep. 2007

  27. Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT), "A Single-Payer System Makes Economic Sense,", Sep. 11, 2013

  28. Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP), "About PNHP," (accessed Dec. 20, 2013)

  29. US Census Bureau and US Department of Commerce, "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2007,", Aug. 2008

  30. David U. Himmelstein, MD, Deborah Thorne, PhD, Elizabeth Warren, JD, and Steffie Woolhandler, MD, MPH, "Medical Bankruptcy in the United States, 2007: Results of a National Study," American Journal of Medicine, Aug. 2009

  31. Francesca Colombo and Nicole Tapay, "Private Health Insurance in OECD Countries: The Benefits and Costs for Individuals and Health Systems,", 2004

  32. Michel P. Colman, et al., "Cancer Survival in Five Continents: A Worldwide Population-Based Study (CONCORD)," The Lancet Oncology, Aug. 2008

  33. Hugh O'Connor, "New Deal Pushes Medical Care Plan,", Oct. 27, 1938

  34. Wall Street Journal, "Transcript of the Second Presidential Debate,", Oct. 7, 2008

  35. Barack Obama, "Remarks by the President at the Annual Conference of the American Medical Association,", June 15, 2009

  36. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (HR 3590),, Mar. 23, 2010

  37. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Health at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators,", 2013

  38. Illinois State Medical Society, "Resolutions Passed at the 70th Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Medical Society," Illinois Medical Journal, July-Dec. 1920

  39. Jim McDermott, "Health Care," (accessed Jan. 2, 2014)

  40. Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP), "Single Payer Allies," (accessed Jan. 2, 2014)

  41. Social Security Administration, "Social Security History: 1930s," (accessed Jan. 3, 2014)

  42. National Archives, "The Declaration of Independence,", July 4, 1776

  43. Cornell University Law School Legal Information Insitute, "US Constitution," (accessed Apr. 1, 2014)

  44. Dennis Kucinich, "A New Movement: Health Care as a Civil Right,", Sep. 9, 2009

  45. Mark Wheeler, "A Constitutional Right to Health Care: UCLA-Led Study Shows That Many Countries Have It, But Not the US,", July 18, 2013

  46. Rachel Nardin, Leah Zallman, Danny McCormick, Steffie Woolhandler, and David Himmelstein, "The Uninsured after Implementation of the Affordable Care Act: A Demographic and Geographic Analysis,", June 6, 2013

  47. The World Bank, "GDP Per Capita (Current US$)," (accessed Jan. 27, 2014)

  48. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), "OECD Health Data 2013," June 27, 2013

  49. United Nations, "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights," (accessed Jan. 27, 2014)

  50. Gunilla Backman, Paul Hunt, and Rajat Khosla, et al., "Health Systems and the Right to Health: An Assessment of 194 Countries," The Lancet, Dec. 10, 2008

  51. Gerald Friedman, PhD, "Funding HR 676: The Expanded and Improved Medicaid for All Act,", July 31, 2013

  52. American Medical Association, "Getting the Most for Our Health Care Dollars: Administrative Costs of Health Care Coverage," (accessed Jan. 27, 2014)

  53. Karen E. Lasser, David Himmelstein, and Steffie Wollhandler, "Access to Care, Health Status, and Health Disparities in the United States and Canada: Results of a Cross-National Population-Based Study," American Journal of Public Health, July 2006

  54. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, "Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA)," (accessed Apr. 1, 2014)

  55. Allan Dizioli and Roberto Pinheiro, "Health Insurance as a Productive Factor,", Mar. 2012

  56. Katherine Peralta, "World Bank's Kim Says Health Care 'Is a Right for Everyone,'", Jan. 14, 2014

  57. Emily Maltby and Angus Loten, "Will Health-Care Law Beget Entrepreneurs?,", May 8, 2013

  58. Alison Wellington, "Health Insurance Coverage and Entrepreneurship," Contemporary and Economic Policy, Oct. 2001

  59. Andrew P. Wilper, Steffie Woolhandler, Karen E. Lasser, and Danny McCormick, et al., "Health Insurance and Mortality in US Adults," American Journal of Public Health, Dec. 2009

  60. J. Michael McWilliams, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ellen Meara and John Z. Ayanian, "Health Insurance Coverage and Mortality among the Near-Elderly," Health Affairs, July 2004

  61. Ronald E. Bachman, "Insure All Americans by 2010,", 2006

  62. Bernie Sanders, "What the US Can Learn About Health Care from Other Countries,", Mar. 11, 2014

  63. Karen E. Lasser, MD, MPH, David U. Himmelstein, MD, and Steffie Woolhandler, MD, MPH, "Access to Care, Health Status, and Health Disparities in the United States and Canada: Results of a Cross-National Population-Based Survey," American Journal of Public Health, July 2006

  64. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, "Health Security Watch,", June 2012

  65. Andrew P. Wilper, and Steffie Woolhandler, et. al, "A National Study of Chronic Disease Prevalence and Access to Care in Unisured US Adults," Annals of Internal Medicine, Aug. 2008

  66. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, "Number of Americans Obtaining Health Insurance through an Employeer Declines Steadily Since 2000,", Apr. 11, 2013

  67. Toni Johnson, "Healthcare Costs and US Competitiveness,", Mar. 26, 2012

  68. Aetna, "The Facts About Rising Health Care Costs," (accessed Jan. 28, 2014)

  69. Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP), "Summary: HR 676, the Expanded & Improved Medicare for All Act,", Feb. 12, 2013

  70. Russia Today (RT), "'Healthcare Is Not a Right' - Ron Paul,", July 19, 2010

  71. Jene E. O'Neill and Dave M. O'Neill, "Health Status, Health Care and Inequality: Canada vs. the US,", Sep. 2007

  72. Bacchus Barua and Nadeem Esmail, "Waiting Your Turn: Wait Times for Health Care in Canada, 2013 Report,", Oct. 2013

  73. Merritt Hawkins, "Physician Appointment Wait Times and Medicaid and Medicare Acceptance Rates,", 2014

  74. Kevin C. Fleming, "High-Priced Pain: What to Expect from a Single-Payer Health Care System,", Sep. 22, 2006

  75. Emily Gosden, "UK Has Fewer Doctors Per Person than Bulgaria and Estonia,", Jan. 3, 2014

  76. Sarah Mann, "Addressing the Physician Shortage under Reform,", May 6, 2011

  77. Paul Ryan, "Opening Statement on the Fiscal Consequences of the Health Care Law,", Jan. 26, 2011

  78. Russell Korobkin, "Comparitie Effectiveness Research as Choice Architecture: The Behavioral Law and Economics Solution to the Health Care Cost Crisis," Michigan Law Review, Feb. 2014

  79. Charles Blahous, "The Fiscal Consequences of the Affordable Care Act,", Mar. 3, 2012

  80. Michael Tanner, "Five Myths about New Health Care Law," Orange County Register, Jan. 19, 2011

  81. Douglas Holtz-Eakin, and Michael J. Ramlet, "Health Care Reform Is Likely to Widen Federal Budget Deficits, Not Reduce Them," Health Affairs, June 2010

  82. Congressional Budget Office, "Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Updated for the Recent Supreme Court Decision,", July 2012.

  83. David Kelly, PhD, "Is There a Right to Health Care?" (accessed Mar. 26, 2014)

  84. Chris Field, "Ronald Reagan Fought Against Obamacare 50 Years Before It Became Law,", Mar. 4, 2011

  85. Paul Roderick Gregory, "Obamacare a Mess? Liberals Say Go Single Payer,", Oct. 28, 2013

  86. Norman Warner and Jack O'Sullivan, "Solving the NHS Care and Cash Crisis: Routes to Health and Care Renewal,", Mar. 2014

  87. Gardiner Harris, "British Balance Benefit vs. Cost of Latest Drugs,", Dec. 2, 2008

  88. Stephen Robinson, "Exclusive: GPs Warn of Rise in Rationing,", Jan. 31, 2014

  89. Sally Pipes, "Michael Moore Is Right: Obamacare Is Awful, But Single-Payer Would Be Much Worse,", Feb. 3, 2014

  90. David Gratzer, MD, "Canada's ObamaCare Precedent,", June 9, 2009

  91. Robert A. Book, PhD, "Single Payer: Why Government-Run Health Care Will Harm Both Patients and Doctors,", Apr. 3, 2009

  92. David M. Cutler and Dan P. Ly, "The (Paper) Work of Medicine: Understanding International Medical Costs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2011

  93. Russell Korobkin, "Health-Care Costs and the "Moral Hazard" Problem,", Mar. 10, 2014

  94. Sarah L. Taubman, Heidi L. Allen, Bill J. Wright, Katherine Baicker, and Amy N. Finkelstein, "Medicaide Increases Emergency-Department Use: Evidence from Oregon's Health Insurance Experiment," Science, Jan. 2014

  95. Health Council of Canada, "Where You Live Matters: Canadian Views on Health Care Quality,", 2013

  96. Gary Claxton, Matthew Rae, and Nirmita Panchal, et al., "Health Benefits in 2013: Moderate Premium Increases in Employer-Sponsored Plans," Health Affairs, Sep. 2013

  97. Steven Rattner, "Beyond Obamacare,", Sep. 16, 2012

  98. Wall Street Journal, "The Worst Bill Ever,", Nov. 1, 2009

  99. Rodrigo Moreno-Serra and Peter C Smith, "Does Progress Towards Universal Health Coverage Improve Population Health," The Lancet, Sep. 7, 2012

  100. Ted Kennedy, "Ted Kennedy and Health Care Reform," Newsweek, July 17, 2009

  101. Norman Daniels, "Justice, Health, and Healthcare," The American Journal of Bioethics, Spring 2001

  102. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), "Medicaid: States Made Multiple Program Changes, and Beneficiaries Generally Reported Access Comparable to Private Insurance,", Nov. 2012

  103. Business Coalition for Single-Payer Healthcare, "Business Benefits of a Single-Payer Medicare-For-All System," (accessed June 4, 2014)

  104. Beatrix Hoffman, "Health Care Rationing Is Nothing New,", Jan. 18, 2013

  105. Board on Health Care Services (HCS) and Institute of Medicine (IOM), "Hidden Costs, Value Lost: Uninsurance in America,", 2003

  106. Our Documents Initiative, "Social Security Act Amendments (1965)," (accessed June 13, 2014)

  107. World Health Assembly Resolution 58.33,, May 25, 2005

  108. World Health Organization, "World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems,", June 21, 2000

  109. Commonwealth Fund, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update: How the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally,", June 18, 2014

  110. National Research Councils and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, "US Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health,", 2013

  111. Avik Roy, "Sen. Harry Reid: Obamacare 'Absolutely' A Step Toward A Single-Payer System,", Aug. 10, 2013

  112. Kimberly J. Morgan, "America's Misguided Approach to Social Welfare,", Jan-Feb. 2013

  113. Oxford Dictionary, "Socialism," (accessed June 20, 2014)

  114. US Census Bureau, "Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014,", Sep. 2015

  115. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators,", 2015

  116. Gregory Krieg, "Inside Bernie Sanders' New 'Medicare for All' Bill,", Sep. 13, 2017

  117. Gallup, "Healthcare System," (accessed Sep. 13, 2017)

  118. United States Census Bureau, "Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2017,", Sep. 12, 2018

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