Last updated on: 3/9/2023 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

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3.Joshua Wright, "Health Care's Unrivaled Job Gains and Where It Matters Most,", Oct. 7, 2013
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57.Emily Maltby and Angus Loten, "Will Health-Care Law Beget Entrepreneurs?,", May 8, 2013
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72.Bacchus Barua and Nadeem Esmail, "Waiting Your Turn: Wait Times for Health Care in Canada, 2013 Report,", Oct. 2013
73.Merritt Hawkins, "Physician Appointment Wait Times and Medicaid and Medicare Acceptance Rates,", 2014
74.Kevin C. Fleming, "High-Priced Pain: What to Expect from a Single-Payer Health Care System,", Sep. 22, 2006
75.Emily Gosden, "UK Has Fewer Doctors Per Person than Bulgaria and Estonia,", Jan. 3, 2014
76.Sarah Mann, "Addressing the Physician Shortage under Reform,", May 6, 2011
77.Paul Ryan, "Opening Statement on the Fiscal Consequences of the Health Care Law,", Jan. 26, 2011
78.Russell Korobkin, "Comparitie Effectiveness Research as Choice Architecture: The Behavioral Law and Economics Solution to the Health Care Cost Crisis," Michigan Law Review, Feb. 2014
79.Charles Blahous, "The Fiscal Consequences of the Affordable Care Act,", Mar. 3, 2012
80.Michael Tanner, "Five Myths about New Health Care Law," Orange County Register, Jan. 19, 2011
81.Douglas Holtz-Eakin and Michael J. Ramlet, "Health Care Reform Is Likely to Widen Federal Budget Deficits, Not Reduce Them," Health Affairs, June 2010
82.Congressional Budget Office, "Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act Updated for the Recent Supreme Court Decision,", July 2012.
83.David Kelly, "Is There a Right to Health Care?" (accessed Mar. 26, 2014)
84.Chris Field, "Ronald Reagan Fought Against Obamacare 50 Years Before It Became Law,", Mar. 4, 2011
85.Paul Roderick Gregory, "Obamacare a Mess? Liberals Say Go Single Payer,", Oct. 28, 2013
86.Norman Warner and Jack O'Sullivan, "Solving the NHS Care and Cash Crisis: Routes to Health and Care Renewal,", Mar. 2014
87.Gardiner Harris, "British Balance Benefit vs. Cost of Latest Drugs,", Dec. 2, 2008
88.Stephen Robinson, "Exclusive: GPs Warn of Rise in Rationing,", Jan. 31, 2014
89.Sally Pipes, "Michael Moore Is Right: Obamacare Is Awful, But Single-Payer Would Be Much Worse,", Feb. 3, 2014
90.David Gratzer, MD, "Canada's ObamaCare Precedent,", June 9, 2009
91.Robert A. Book, "Single Payer: Why Government-Run Health Care Will Harm Both Patients and Doctors,", Apr. 3, 2009
92.David M. Cutler and Dan P. Ly, "The (Paper) Work of Medicine: Understanding International Medical Costs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 2011
93.Russell Korobkin, "Health-Care Costs and the "Moral Hazard" Problem,", Mar. 10, 2014
94.Sarah L. Taubman, et al., "Medicaide Increases Emergency-Department Use: Evidence from Oregon's Health Insurance Experiment," Science, Jan. 2014
95.Health Council of Canada, "Where You Live Matters: Canadian Views on Health Care Quality,", 2013
96.Gary Claxton, et al., "Health Benefits in 2013: Moderate Premium Increases in Employer-Sponsored Plans," Health Affairs, Sep. 2013
97.Steven Rattner, "Beyond Obamacare,", Sep. 16, 2012
98.Wall Street Journal, "The Worst Bill Ever,", Nov. 1, 2009
99.Rodrigo Moreno-Serra and Peter C Smith, "Does Progress Towards Universal Health Coverage Improve Population Health," The Lancet, Sep. 7, 2012
100.Ted Kennedy, "Ted Kennedy and Health Care Reform," Newsweek, July 17, 2009
101.Norman Daniels, "Justice, Health, and Healthcare," The American Journal of Bioethics, Spring 2001
102.United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), "Medicaid: States Made Multiple Program Changes, and Beneficiaries Generally Reported Access Comparable to Private Insurance,", Nov. 2012
103.Business Coalition for Single-Payer Healthcare, "Business Benefits of a Single-Payer Medicare-For-All System," (accessed June 4, 2014)
104.Beatrix Hoffman, "Health Care Rationing Is Nothing New,", Jan. 18, 2013
105.Board on Health Care Services (HCS) and Institute of Medicine (IOM), "Hidden Costs, Value Lost: Uninsurance in America,", 2003
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107.World Health Assembly Resolution 58.33,, May 25, 2005
108.World Health Organization, "World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems,", June 21, 2000
109.Commonwealth Fund, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, 2014 Update: How the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally,", June 18, 2014
110.National Research Councils and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, "US Health in International Perspective: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health,", 2013
111.Avik Roy, "Sen. Harry Reid: Obamacare 'Absolutely' A Step Toward A Single-Payer System,", Aug. 10, 2013
112.Kimberly J. Morgan, "America's Misguided Approach to Social Welfare,", Jan-Feb. 2013
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114.US Census Bureau, "Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014,", Sep. 2015
115.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Health at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators,", 2015
116.Gregory Krieg, "Inside Bernie Sanders' New 'Medicare for All' Bill,", Sep. 13, 2017
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118.Edward R. Berchick, Jessica C. Barnett, and Rachel D. Upton, "Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2018,", Nov. 2019
119.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Health at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators,", Feb. 2018
120.BBC, "Reality Check: Does UK Spend Half as Much on Health as US?,", Feb. 6, 2018
121.World Health Organization, "Life Expectancy and Healthy Life Expectancy, Data by Country," (accessed Feb. 5, 2018)
122.GBD 2016 Healthcare Access and Quality Collaborators, "Measuring Performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 Countries and Territories and Selected Subnational Locations: A Systematic Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016,", May 23, 2018
123.Comparative Constitution Project, "Right to Healthcare," (accessed Feb. 5, 2019)
124.Andrew Dugan, "Cost of Healthcare Is Americans' Top Financial Concern,", June 23, 2017
125.Department of Health and Human Services, "Individual Market Premium Changes: 2013-2017,", May 23, 2017
126.Kelly Gooch, "64% of Americans Avoid or Delay Treatment Due to Cost of Medical Care: 5 Survey Insights,", Feb. 15th, 2018
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128.Congressional Budget Office, "Federal Subsidies for Health Insurance Coverage for People Under Age 65: 2018-2028,", May 2018
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131.National Bankruptcy Forum, "10 Statistics About US Medical Debt that Will Shock You,", Dec. 14, 2017
132.Jessica Banthin, "Projections of Federal Spending on Major Health Care Programs,", May 24, 2018
133.Charles Blahous, "The Costs of a National Single-Payer Healthcare System,", July 2018
134.Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, "Adding Up Senator Sanders's Campaign Proposals So Far,", May 19, 2016
135.Canadian Institute for Health Information, "How Canada Compares: Results from the Commonwealth Fund's 2016 International Health Policy Survey of Adults in 11 Countries - Data Tables,", 2016
136.Bacchus Barua, et al., "Waiting Your Turn: Wait Times for Health Care in Canada, 2018 Report,", 2018
137.Merritt Hawkins, "2017 Survey of Physician Appointment Wait Times and Medicare and Medicaid Acceptance Rates,", 2017
138.Emily Gudbranson, "Reassessing the Data on Whether a Physician Shortage Exists,", May 16, 2017
139.Matt Sussman, "Do Fixed Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds or CE Threshold Magnituded Matter?,", Mar. 6, 2018
140.Sara Heath, "Physician Shortage Drives Wait Times, Harms Patient Care Access,", Mar. 23, 2017
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142.Canadian Cancer Society, "Cancer Statistics at a Glance," (accessed Feb. 11, 2019)
143.Cancer Research UK, "Cancer Survival Statistics for All Cancers Combined," (accessed Feb. 11, 2019)
144.Jaime Rosenberg, "Cancer Screening Rates in the US Fall Short of Healthy People 2020 Targets,", July 31, 2018
145.Matthew Thaxter, "UK Cancer Survival Rates Still Trailing European Peers,", Feb. 12, 2018
146.Bowel Cancer UK, "Uptake Rates for Bowel Cancer Screening Far Too Low - Don't Ignore the Test!,", Aug. 1, 2018
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150.Les Masterson, "CBO Reports Show Private Insurers Pay Physicians, Hospitals Far More Than Medicare,", July 27, 2017
151.Megan Knowles, "29 Statistics on Annual Physician Compensation by Specialty,", Apr. 11, 2018
152.Tim Locke and Veronique Duqueroy, "UK Doctor's Salary Report,", Oct. 3, 2018
153.Robin Levinson-King, "Why Quebec Doctors Have Rejected a Pay Rise,", Mar. 8, 2018
154.Richard M. Salsman, "Memo to the Supreme Court: Health Care Is Not a Right,", Apr. 3, 2012
155.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), “NHE Fact Sheet,”, Mar. 24, 2020
156.Kaiser Family Foundation, "Public Opinion on Single-Payer, National Health Plans, and Expanding Access to Medicare Coverage,”, Apr. 3, 2020
157.Jocelyn Kiley, "Most Continue to Say Ensuring Health Care Coverage is Government’s Responsibility,”, Oct. 3, 2018
158.Josh Bivens and Ben Zipperer, "12.7 Million Workers Have Likely Lost Employer-Provided Health Insurance since the Coronavirus Shock Began,”, Apr. 30, 2020
159.White House, "President Donald J. Trump Is Supporting American Businesses, Workers, and Families Impacted by the Coronavirus,”, Mar. 18, 2020
160.Joe Biden, “The Biden Plan to Combat Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Prepare for Future Global Health Threats,”, Mar. 12, 2020, "1965, July 30: President Johnson signs Medicare into law,", July 30, 2019
162.Jennifer Tolbert , Patrick Drake , and Anthony Damico, "Key Facts about the Uninsured Population,", Dec. 19, 2022
163.Kaiser Family Foundation, "2021 Employer Health Benefits Survey,", Nov. 10, 2021
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165.Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, National Health Expenditure Data: Historical,, Dec. 15, 2023
166.Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, The Nation's Health Dollar, Where it Went, Where It Came From: Calendar Year 2021, (accessed Mar. 8, 2023)
167.Lydia Saad, Americans' Financial Worries Tick Up in Past Year,, May 9, 2022
168.Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2021 - May 2022,, May 27, 2022
169.Noam N. Levey, 100 Million People in America Are Saddled with Medical Debt,, June, 16, 2022
170.Amy M. Levine & Associates, Medical Debt Is the Top Cause of Bankruptcy Filings,, Apr 12, 2022
171.Munira Z. Gunja, Evan D. Gumas, and Reginald D. Williams II, "U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective, 2022: Accelerating Spending, Worsening Outcomes,", Jan. 31, 2023
172.Eric C. Schneider, et al., "Mirror, Mirror 2021: Reflecting Poorly Health Care in the U.S. Compared to Other High-Income Countries,", Aug. 4, 2021
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175.Megan Brenan, Majority in U.S. Still Say Gov't Should Ensure Healthcare,, Jan. 23, 2023
176.Ahmed Aboulenein, U.S. Signs Up over 16 Million People for Obamacare Health Insurance,, Jan. 25, 2023
177.Amanda Seitz, Number of Uninsured Americans Drops to an All-Time Low, Aug. 2, 2022
178.Kimberly Amadeo, "What Is Universal Health Care?,", Dec. 6, 2022
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181.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, "Access to Health Coverage,", Feb. 28, 2023
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184.Military Benefit Association, "What Is TRICARE?,", May 2021
185.United States Census Bureau, "Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2021,", Sep. 13, 2022
186.Blue Shield California, "How Retiring Baby Boomers Will Push Health Spends to $6 Trillion,", Oct. 13, 2022, "Medicaid & CHIP," (accessed Mar. 14, 2023)
188.Elizabeth Hovde, "VA Fails Veterans, Putting Single-Payer, Government-Run System on Display,", July 21, 2022
189.Orion Donovan-Smith, "Watchdog Reveals Flaw in Cerner Computer System Caused Nearly 150 Cases of Harm at Spokane VA Hospital,", June 19, 2022
190.Gabriel Zieff, et al., "Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A Healthy Debate," Medicina (Kaunas) ,, Oct. 30, 2020
191.BioSpace, "New Study: Future Medical Innovation Will Be Hindered Unless Elected Officials Embrace Health Care Entrepreneurship,", June 25, 2020
192.Shefali Luthra, "Would ‘Medicare For All’ Cost More Than U.S. Budget? Biden Says So. Math Says No.,", Feb. 14, 2020
193.Phill Swagel, "How CBO Analyzes Proposals for a Single-Payer Health Care System,", Dec. 10, 2020
194.Jaeger Nelson, "Economic Effects of Five Illustrative Single-Payer Health Care Systems,", Feb. 2022
195.The Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, "Would Medicare for All Require a Middle-Class Tax Hike?,", Mar. 14, 2023
196.Kenneth Thorpe, "An Analysis of Senator Sanders Single Payer Plan,", Jan. 27, 2016
197.Josh Katz, Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz, "Would ‘Medicare for All’ Save Billions or Cost Billions?,", Oct. 16, 2019
198.Alison P. Galvani, et al., "Universal Healthcare As Pandemic Preparedness: The Lives and Costs That Could Have Been Saved during the COVID-19 Pandemic,", June 13, 2022
199.Paul B. Ginsburg and Steven M. Lieberman, “Government Regulated or Negotiated Drug Prices: Key Design Considerations,”, Aug. 30, 2021
200.Kaiser Family Foundation, “Poll: Nearly 1 in 4 Americans Taking Prescription Drugs Say It’s Difficult to Afford Their Medicines, including Larger Shares among Those with Health Issues, with Low Incomes and Nearing Medicare Age,”, Mar. 1, 2019
201.Alison P. Galvani, et al., "Improving the Prognosis of Health Care in the USA,", Feb. 15, 2020
202.Adam Gaffney, et al., "Pricing Universal Health Care: How Much Would the Use of Medical Care Rise?,", Jan. 2021
203.Chhabi L. Ranabhat, et al., "The Influence of Universal Health Coverage on Life Expectancy at Birth (LEAB) and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE): A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study,", 2018
204.OECD, "Universal Health Coverage and Health Outcomes,", July 22, 2026
205.American Hospital Association, "Report: The Importance of Health Coverage,", 2019
206.Joshua W. Axene, "Take a Number: Would Long Wait Times in Us Healthcare Be Acceptable?,", May 30, 2019
207.Congressional Budget Office, "Answers to Questions for the Record Following a Hearing Conducted by the House Committee on the Budget: Key Design Components and Considerations for Establishing a Single-Payer Health Care System,", Dec. 20, 2019